Enterococcus hirae as Next Generation Probiotics

Enterococcus hirae is a zoonotic bacterium mainly causing infections in animals, which has been explored great probiotic potential since its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Based on abundant experience and outstanding research team, Creative Biolabs provides comprehensive services for Enterococcus hirae-based probiotic drug discovery.

Introduction to Enterococcus hirae

Enterococcus hirae (E. hirae) is a gram-positive bacterium belonging to the genus of Enterococcus, the family of Enterococcaceae. E. hirae is a species identified in 1985, which has been indicated to cause growth depression in young chickens. E. hirae morphologically presents ovoid cells, mostly in pairs or short chains. And E. hirae colonies on agars are smooth and complete circles.

Compared with the most common species E. faecalis and E. faecium in the same genus, E. hirae is much less frequent. As a genus of lactic acid bacteria, Enterococci are non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as opportunistic pathogens mainly distributing birds, water animals, and soil food. Although other Enterococcus species were frequent causes of clinical urinary tract infections and bacteremia, E. hirae is reported to cause animal infections and rarely implicated in human disease.

Colonies of Enterococcus hirae F2 on different agar medium. Fig.1 Colonies of Enterococcus hirae F2 on different agar medium. (Adnan, 2017)

Probiotic Potential of Enterococcus hirae

Despite some Enterococci species, such as E. faecalis and E. faecium, have been identified as pathogenetic bacterium for humans, recent studies illustrated that E. hirae species may as act a new probiotic playing positive functions in diseases treatment.

  • Firstly, E. hirae isolated from Bos primigenius regulate immune response by functioning as an anti-inflammatory strain through significantly inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) and activating the secretion of IL-4. Meanwhile, E. hirae also showed an anti-microbial effect on intestinal pathogenic bacteria.
  • Secondly, E. hirae strain has been demonstrated to be an adjuvant for immunomodulatory agent cyclophosphamide-mediated anti-cancer therapy, by which E. hirae could restore the antitumor activity of cytotoxic T cells by increasing CD8+ effector tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
  • Thirdly, studies on E. hirae F2 isolated from a freshwater fish once again confirmed its potential as a probiotic. This E. hirae F2 strain was an acid and bile salts resistant bacterium exhibited inhibitory activity on multiple gastrointestinal pathogens, good antioxidant activity, and excellent lipase activity.

All these anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, and lipase activity reveal the desirable probiotic potential of E. hirae species in vitro. Deep investigations and rapid isolation methods are needed for the development of E. hirae to be a novel probiotic product to benefit human health.

More and more concern has focused on probiotics promoting human health in recent years. Creative Biolabs, a biotechnology company committed to human health improvement, provides a full range of high-quality services for the development of next-generation probiotics for diverse disease therapy.

Please feel free to contact us and we will offer you a tailored solution.


  1. Adnan, M., et al. Functional and health promoting inherent attributes of Enterococcus hirae F2 as a novel probiotic isolated from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Catla catla. PeerJ. 5: e3085.
  2. Arokiyaraj, S., et al. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014, 30(7): 2111-2118.
  3. Daillère, R., et al. Enterococcus hirae and Barnesiella intestinihominis facilitate cyclophosphamide-induced therapeutic immunomodulatory effects. Immunity. 2016, 45(4): 931-943.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for use in food manufacturing or medical procedures (diagnostics or therapeutics). Do Not Use in Humans.

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