The ability to adhere to the host is a classic selection criterion for potential probiotics, leading to transient colonization and helping to promote immunomodulatory effects, as well as stimulating intestinal barrier and metabolic functions. Creative Biolabs is dedicated to providing the most comprehensive CRO service for academic researchers in the field of live biotherapeutics. Our goal is to provide one-stop evaluations of next-generation probiotics to efficiently advance client projects.
The presence of some surface proteins such as cell wall-anchored proteinases has been shown to enhance hydrophobicity and adhesion in some lactic acid bacteria. The presence of adhesins in bacterial cell walls also plays an important role in bacterial adhesion to the gut. Also, fimbriae or pili can promote adhesion. Besides mucus-binding proteins and pili, other surface proteins like fibronectin-binding proteins (FBPs) and surface layer proteins (SLPs) can contribute to the adherence of bacteria to the intestinal mucosa.
Fig.1 Schematic representation of antiadhesive properties of probiotics and prebiotics. (Monteagudo, 2019)
Adhesion to intestinal mucosa is one of the main criteria for the selection of probiotics. Adherence to probiotic bacteria has been commonly evaluated in vitro using mucin adsorbed onto abiotic surfaces and human tumorigenic cell lines such as Caco-2 and HT-29 to mimic the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The use of epithelial cell lines is very useful for the identification of adhesion mechanisms and molecules. In vitro cell line studies help predict the effect of probiotics and gastrointestinal conditions on the adhesion ability of probiotics.
All models used for in vitro adhesion have their specific advantages and drawbacks. Thus, it may be advisable to assess the adhesion of potential probiotics in more than one model, each supplementing the other. Tissue culture cells and intestinal mucus can screen many potential probiotics.
Several intestinal mucosal models have been developed, using different parts of the intestinal mucosa as substratum.
The most widely used models for assessing microbial adhesiveness, not just probiotics, are tissue culture cells. For the study of adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, in particular, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells are commonly used.
Another model used to study in vitro adhesion is based on immobilized intestinal mucus, isolated from feces or resected tissue. A good correlation exists between adhesion to mucus and Caco-2 models.
Such a model has been further developed to study adhesion to resected human intestinal tissue and can be used to investigate the influences of intestinal diseases on the adhesion of probiotics.
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