Increasing evidence has shown probiotics contribute to reducing the symptoms of metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Creative Biolabs is an expert skilled in the development of probiotics. We offer a full range of probiotic development services, such as probiotics identification, safety test, host-microbe interaction test, and cGMP manufacturing...
Metabolic diseases are a group of diseases caused by abnormal metabolic processes, including diabetes, insulin resistance, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, etc. These diseases disrupt the normal metabolic processes, involved in the metabolism disorders of amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, purine, and pyrimidine. Metabolic diseases are very common. It is reported the prevalence of obesity is about 42.4% and the prevalence of severe obesity is approximately 9.2% in 2017-2018. Metabolic diseases are caused by inheritance, or by high-calorie diets, inappropriate lifestyle, and lack of exercise. In general, high-calorie diets and taking exercise may improve metabolic syndrome. Now, more and more studies have revealed that probiotics may be considered as a complementary treatment for metabolic disorders.
Fig.1 Main comorbidities associated with the metabolic syndrome. (Pedro-Botet, 2018)
More and more evidence has shown obesity is associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Metagenomic analysis revealed the changes in microbial ecology affected the functional transformation of the microbiota, which was related to the obese phenotype. Because of the correlation between obesity and gut microbiota, it seems that probiotics may be an alternative for control weight, and oral some probiotics such as L. gasseri SBT 2055, L. rhamnosus PL60, and L. plantarum PL62 have been shown to reduce abdominal adiposity and body weight without the adverse effects.
Insulin resistance increases the risk of diabetes. However, insulin resistance is associated with increased intestinal permeability. These suggest some probiotics may have a positive impact on diabetes-related insulin resistance via regulating the barrier function of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotic administration has been indicated to reduce fasting glucose and decrease insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes.
NAFLD is the most prevalent chronic liver disease characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of non-alcohol users. This disease increases the risk of more serious liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver carcinoma. Probiotics have been indicated as a promising treatment option for treating NAFLD. A meta-analysis showed probiotics can significantly reduce body mass index (BMI), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and ultrasonographic grade of fatty liver.
CKD is a syndrome caused by a progressive decline in renal function. It is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and becomes a global health issue with a high economic cost. Sometimes the increased plasma levels of uremic solutes can be observed in CKD patients who require kidney transplantation or chronic dialysis to relieve. Interestingly, probiotics may be an alternative therapy to treat end-stage renal disease and attenuate uremia.
HE is a complex brain disorder that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with liver dysfunction. Currently, several studies have demonstrated that probiotics may act as a treatment option to manage HE. A meta-analysis of 9 eligible reports showed probiotics have a beneficial effect on patients with HE. Besides, probiotics have also been indicated to prevent HE in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.
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