Biochemical Identification Technology in the Microbial Identification

Creative Biolabs is a premier provider of customized solutions to live biotherapeutic product (LBP) development. We mainly focus on microorganisms to develop all-around services. We have a professional technical team, mature technical platforms, and rich project experience in biochemical identification.

Introduction of Biochemical Tests

The time required to report and identify these bacteria must be assessed. Biochemical testing is a traditional, inexpensive way to identify bacteria. That's why many researchers prefer to apply these techniques to identify microbes, rather than opt for newer ones. In microbiology, traditional biochemical identification methods rely mainly on cultivation proceedings employing various media to enumerate, isolate, and identify specific microorganisms. These methods have been widely used for years and are still used today, especially in some laboratory routines that require the rapid identification of specific types of microorganisms. Biochemical tests are used for microbial identification based on the difference lye in their biochemical activities exhibited by different types of bacteria. Among the biochemical tests such as catalase test, coagulase test, starch hydrolysis test, and nitrate test are used to identify the Gram-positive bacteria while oxidase test, urease test, indole test, sulfur test, methyl red/voges-proskauer test are used for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria.

Carbohydrate fermentation test.Fig.1 Carbohydrate fermentation test. (Chouduri, 2013)

The Common Biochemical Identification System

A typical model is the analysis profile index (API), which integrates standard methods into miniaturized reaction pairs, scoring them as "positive" and "negative", and finally matching them to a scoring system based on "best match" to create an analysis profile. For years, researchers used the API 20E test instrument, which consists of 20 cupules containing a pH-based substrate and can identify nearly 100 taxa. Until 1992, this method was considered the "gold standard", especially in clinical microbiology. One significant advantage of this approach is the availability of extensive databases, although it has a major disadvantage, namely time-consuming.

The API 20 NE is a commercial biochemical identification system for gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae.Fig.2 The API 20 NE is a commercial biochemical identification system for gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae. (Donnelly, 2006)

An automated version of the API is the Vitek system, first developed in the 1970s, which eliminated the subjectivity of the reading of test reactions. The Vitek system can be used for simultaneous bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from isolated patient samples. The system uses fully automated broth microdilution technology that uses an optical scanner to measure the attenuation of light for growth or non-growth detection (the key is that the sample in the card is a pure isolate). The device regularly monitors growth for 18-24 h for bacteria and 36 h for yeast.

Automated tests to identify bacteria in the laboratory have become necessary as microbiologists attempt to answer higher demands and the need for rapid diagnosis. Bacterial identification is a very important part of LBP development. Creative Biolabs has expertise and capabilities in providing high-quality microbial identification solutions. If you are in the microbial identification phase of the LBP development project, please contact us for further communication, which will greatly advance your research.


  1. Chouduri, A.U.; Wadud, A. Strong cephalosporin resistant uropathogen, Proteus mirabilis, in urban tap water harbors a risk to public health, Bangladesh. Glob. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol. 2013, 2: 164-171.
  2. Donnelly, T.M. Application of laboratory animal immunoassays to exotic pet practice. EXOTIC DVM. 2006, 8(4): 19.

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