Anti-diabetic Activity Assays for Next-generation Probiotics

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Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by impaired insulin sensitivity, or the ability to produce insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose concentrations that ultimately damage the body's systems, especially blood vessels and nerves. Many anti-diabetic drugs have been developed to fight the disease. However, common synthetic drugs also have side effects. Therefore, researchers have focused on the use of probiotics in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and probiotics have shown an incredible role in diabetes treatments due to their ability to inhibit the enzymes α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Probiotics are expected to be a promising therapeutic and preventive strategy for diabetes mellitus by modifying intestinal microbiota, improving intestinal barrier function, and inhibiting insulin resistance.

Probiotic Treatment for Diabetes

Probiotic treatment resulted in reduced blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies have shown that probiotics, administered in animal experiments and clinical trials, can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes by reducing blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Insulin resistance accelerates the occurrence and development of T2D, which is a typical characteristic of T2D. Therefore, evaluation of potential new strains with these characteristics is necessary to broaden the use of probiotics for the treatment of T2D.

Potential Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics for Diabetes

Animal studies suggest that the composition of the gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The anti-diabetic effects of probiotics include reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the NF-κB pathway, reduction of intestinal permeability, and reduction of oxidative stress. SCFAs play a key role in glucose homeostasis through a variety of potential mechanisms of action. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors on L-cells by SCFA promotes the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY resulting in increased insulin and decreased glucagon secretion, and suppressed appetite. GLP-1 is one of the enteroendocrine peptides produced by L-cell in the gut. SCFAs may also have anti-lipolytic activity in adipocytes and increase insulin sensitivity by upregulating 5'AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in muscle and liver tissues via GLUT4. Other potential mechanisms of anti-diabetic effects of probiotics could be associated with enhanced immunity and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine production, reduced intestinal permeability, and reduced oxidative stress.

The possible relationship between gut microbiota and pre-diabetes. Fig.1 The possible relationship between gut microbiota and pre-diabetes. (Wang, 2021)

Anti-diabetic Activity Assays for Potential Probiotic at Creative Biolabs

Pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase are two major enzymes present in the digestive system that catalyze the first step in the digestion of starch. Inhibition of these two enzymes by probiotic cells leads to low blood glucose levels, proving that they are effective anti-diabetic drugs. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase reduces carbohydrate hydrolysis, which in turn reduces the likelihood of sugar being absorbed by the human gut.

  • Anti-α-Glucosidase Activity Assay

α-Glucosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes carbohydrate digestion on brush edge membranes. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity has been shown to prevent T2D by reducing glucose absorption and lowering blood glucose levels.

  • Anti-α-Amylase Activity Assay

Creative Biolabs can provide you with a one-stop live biotherapeutics solution. Our solutions range from research design consulting, to data generation and data interpretation. Contact us to discuss your next anti-diabetic activity assay project or other services you are interested in.


  1. Wang, X.; et al. Probiotics, pre-biotics and synbiotics in the treatment of pre-diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021, 9: 645035.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for use in food manufacturing or medical procedures (diagnostics or therapeutics). Do Not Use in Humans.

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