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Leaky gut refers to intestinal barrier dysfunction, which often leads to Leaky gut syndrome (LGS) in the chronic state. As the name suggests, the pathology of intestinal leakage is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, which is induced by a variety of pathogenic factors. A leaky gut may be one of the underlying causes of illnesses involving concomitant downstream disruptions in the blood-brain barrier and numerous studies indicate that hypoxia and/or inflammation increase BBB paracellular permeability.
Fig.1 Construction of intestinal barrier. (Usuda, 2021)
A large variety of gut barrier disruptors and/or gut microbiota disturbers may potentially result in microbial translocation and subsequent inflammation locally and systemically.
Nutrients and food components have been reported to help maintain or alter gut microbiota and gut barrier function.
Stress-induced changes in gut microbiota and damage to the gut barrier will allow microbial translocation to occur.
The most commonly used indirect measure of intestinal permeability in humans is fractionated urinary excretion via an oral probe. The most commonly used probe molecules are sugars. The timing of urinary excretion provides the best way to differentiate regional analyses: 0-2 hours reflects predominantly small intestinal permeability and 8-24 hours reflects almost exclusively colonic permeability.
Several methods have been used to assess and measure intestinal permeability from human intestinal samples. Other approaches quantitate the tight junction proteins in the mucosal biopsies or assess the fecal supernatant in cellular monolayers or rat or mouse colonic mucosa in vitro.
Given the contribution of leaky gut and bacterial translocation to inflammation and multiple diseases, reversing leaky gut seems to be an attractive therapeutic strategy. Various probiotics have been found to have properties that protect the intestinal barrier by targeting different components of the mucosal barrier system.
Evaluate the effect of the products or samples on intestinal barrier permeability, proinflammatory cytokine, and chemokine production. In these assays, the functional epithelial cells of the basolateral compartment (Caco-2 cells) are destroyed by activated immune cells, creating a "leaky gut" reminiscent of the low-grade inflammation observed in inflammatory bowel disease. Macrophage-like THP-1 cells or PBMCs, representing the innate or adaptive immune system, respectively, are available.
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For Research Use Only. Not intended for use in food manufacturing or medical procedures (diagnostics or therapeutics). Do Not Use in Humans.