Creative Biolabs is a global live biotherapeutics service provider based in New York City. We provide a wide range of project services and products to clients from around the world, ranging from academic laboratories and small biotech start-ups to global biopharmaceutical companies. You can benefit from our expertise when you wish to commission a partner to research Next-generation probiotics or manage a research bottleneck for a single project.
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in preventing infection with specific pathogens. This first-line defense system depends largely on the number of phagocytes and proteins, which then activate the vertebrate adaptive immune response through the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
The mucosal immune system is highly specific in protecting the entire inner surface, including the oropharyngeal cavity, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, urogenital tract, and exocrine glands in humans.
Probiotic benefits related to immunoregulation for the treatment of various diseases have been extensively studied. The immunomodulatory effect of probiotics is mainly through inducing the release of cytokines such as interleukins, transforming growth factors (TGF), interferons (INFs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), and chemokines released by immune cells to further regulate the immune system.
In vitro studies with intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29, Caco-2, and dendritic cells from PBMC), it has been reported that probiotics can affect cytokines produced by APCs to initiate adaptive responses. An immunomodulatory mechanism involves two different classes of probiotics (immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory). Immune-stimulating probiotics can fight infected and cancer cells, induce IL-12 production, activate NK cells and develop Th1 cells. Immune-regulated probiotics are characterized by the production of IL-10 and Treg cells, which lead to a reduction in allergies, IBD, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory responses. Probiotics also have the potential to act as immune modulators, interacting with epithelial cells and DCs, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes. Various animal models have shown that the effects of probiotics on cytokine immune regulation are strain-specific.
Fig.1 Immunomodulation of probiotics. (Azad, 2018)
The research showed that the ranking of strains obtained based on an in vitro IL-10/IL-12 cytokine induction ratio closely correlates with the ranking of the in vivo ability of the strains to attenuate experimental colitis. Although there is evidence that in vitro data can be used to predict in vivo action, specific probiotic strains need to be investigated in vitro and in vivo using more than one murine disease model to select suitable strains, as the activity of certain strains depends on the type of colitis model. Results from mouse models provide growing evidence that the induction of Tregs by probiotics is mediated by interactions with LP DCs.
It is urgent to understand cytokine secretion by Th2 cells, DCs, monocytes, B cells, and Tregs to establish new strains of probiotics. Creative Biolabs offers a world-class, cutting-edge, comprehensive live biotherapeutics analytics platform, and our mission is to accelerate research and discovery by providing superior technical support. If you are interested in our immunomodulatory assays, please do not hesitate to contact us for more to help you.
For Research Use Only. Not intended for use in food manufacturing or medical procedures (diagnostics or therapeutics). Do Not Use in Humans.