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Inflammation is a protective and defensive mechanism of the body, during which various pathological changes occur. It seems that probiotics by increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and T-reg cells, as well as reducing the immune and biological effects of proinflammatory cytokines are the prominent mechanisms that have been demonstrated. Inflammation can be divided into acute and chronic, and the inflammatory response occurs in three stages. The first stage is when increased vascular permeability causes fluid to leak from the blood into the space, the second stage is when white blood cells infiltrate from the blood into the tissue, and the third stage is granuloma formation and tissue repair. Inflammatory mediators are generally histamine, prostaglandins (PGs), leukotriene (LTB4), nitric oxide (NO), and platelet-activating factor (PAF).
In the occasional breach of the intestinal barrier, microbes can infiltrate the intestinal epithelium and elicit an immune response guided by mucosal dendritic cells (DCS), which can induce a defensive secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. The healthy balance in the intestinal district is preserved by the circuitry of monitoring mechanisms between potentially pro-inflammatory cells [T helper (Th) cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ, Th17 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-22], and anti-inflammatory Foxp3+ receptor T cells [Regulatory T (Treg) Cells)]. Many bacteria can stimulate the anti-inflammatory fork of the adaptive immune system by controlling Treg maturation or driving IL-10 production. Several strains of probiotics have been shown to exert diverse effects on the host and its immune system. Specific strains of probiotics can activate DCs to transport antigens to local lymph nodes by releasing IL-10 and IL-12.
Fig.1 Live biotherapeutics as new treatments for inflammatory intestinal diseases. (Pesce, 2022)
The anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics have been studied in vitro, ex vivo, and in animal experiments to assess cytokine production and immune cell proliferation.
One of the most known effects of probiotics is that of promoting a shift from Th2 to Th1 cells, to decrease allergic reactions. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in the presence of lactic acid bacteria, can increase the production of IFN-γ by T cells and NK cells. The cytokine IL-8 is essential for the recruitment of immune cells in inflammatory responses. Among other immune cells, Treg cells are masters of immune regulation and tolerance.
Numerous studies on the effects of probiotics on inflammation have been conducted in animals, much of it in mouse models of colitis. TNBS colitis belongs to the animal model group of chemically induced colitis, including DSS colitis and oxazolone colitis. These three animal models are the most commonly used in this category and show remarkable agreement. Its advantages are good repeatability, simple technology, and low cost. The model applies to rodents and guinea pigs, but there are significant strain differences. TNBS-colitis remains a powerful tool in studying immune pathogenesis and potentially treating the disease.
Founded by the world's leading scientists with decades of research experience, Creative Biolabs is focused on giving you a deeper understanding of the capabilities of next-generation probiotics. Our multidisciplinary technical team brings together decades of experience in microbiology, genomics, and animal research to provide you with the expertise you need to solve all aspects of complex research. If you are interested in our anti-inflammatory activity assays for next-generation probiotics, please feel free to contact us to learn more.
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