Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a concept that may seem unpalatable to an unsuspecting person. However, FMT and its derivatives have revolutionized the handling of various health conditions and presented remarkable breakthroughs.
The origins of FMT date back to ancient Chinese medicine, where it was used as a therapeutic treatment for food poisoning and severe diarrhea. However, it was not until the 1950s when a surge of scientific interest in the gastrointestinal flora gave rise to modern FMT. Technological advancements have also made FMT procedures more refined and effective. With further research, the community has widened the use of FMT beyond gastrointestinal diseases to other conditions such as autoimmune diseases, mental health disorders, and obesity.
Fig. 1 Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
FMT involves the administration of the entire microbial community from the feces of healthy donors into the recipient's gut to normalize or alter the composition and function of the gut microbiota. The restored colon microbial community can exert beneficial effects through several mechanisms: bile acid inhibition on spore germination, competition for nutrients; direct inhibition by antimicrobial peptides; and vegetative growth and activation of immune-mediated colonization resistance.
Understanding the potential benefits of FMT is subject to ongoing research due to its significant implications for health and disease prevention. FMT has been most notably used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), where it has achieved high rates of clinical success. FMT is also being investigated for its potential application in the treatment of other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and metabolic disorders. For instance, it may alter gut microbial composition, leading to improved response to immunotherapy in cancer patients. Moreover, it shows promise in modulating the gut-brain axis, fostering research into its potential effects on neurological and developmental disorders. However, it is crucial to stress that much of these potential benefits are still in experimental stages, and more research is needed to substantiate these claims.
Fecal microbiota spores represent a new class of live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). Currently, the FDA-approved products have demonstrated efficacy in preventing CDI recurrence in adults following the completion of antibiotic therapy. They function by re-establishing the gut microbiota and limiting spore germination, bacterial replication, and toxin production by C. difficile. Although the biological role of microbiome repair is unknown, it is thought to affect bile acid metabolism in the gut by restoring the balance of primary and secondary bile acids.
FMT and its derivatives offer revolutionary approaches for therapeutic treatments. As understanding of the gut microbiome continues to evolve, so will the scope of FMT applications, presenting promising avenues for treatment and prevention of a myriad of health conditions.
Creative Biolabs provide comprehensive FMT services for research use. Do not hesitate to contact us for more information.
For Research Use Only. Not intended for use in food manufacturing or medical procedures (diagnostics or therapeutics). Do Not Use in Humans.